Palm kernel shell

Palm kernel shell (PKS) is a byproduct of the palm oil industry. It is the hard outer shell of the palm kernel fruit. PKS has gained attention as a renewable and sustainable biomass fuel. Here are its specifications:

  1. Moisture Content: Typically, PKS has a moisture content ranging from 10% to 20%.
  2. Calorific Value: The calorific value of PKS is approximately 4,000 to 4,500 kcal/kg.
  3. Bulk Density: PKS has a bulk density of around 550 kg/m³.
  4. Ash Content: The ash content in PKS is typically less than 8%.
  5. Sulfur Content: PKS has a low sulfur content, usually below 0.5%.
  6. Particle Size: The particle size of PKS varies, with an average size of 2-5 cm.
  7. Carbon-to-Nitrogen Ratio: PKS has a carbon-to-nitrogen ratio of approximately 40:1.

These specifications make PKS a favorable biomass fuel for applications such as power generation and heating, contributing to the utilization of renewable energy sources and reducing greenhouse gas emissions.


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